Approximately 1 in 10 people worldwide have diabetes, a condition where the body fails to process glucose correctly. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to heart disease, nerve damage, eye problems, and kidney disease, as well as can increase the risk of developing certain cancers. With the incidence of diabetes on the rise, testing requirements remain high – both for diagnosing different forms of the condition and for monitoring the effectiveness of available therapies. Medix Biochemica Group offers an extensive selection of high-quality antibodies, antigens, and biospecimens for those developing novel tests or treatments for diabetes, all of which demonstrate exceptional batch-to-batch consistency and are available in scalable supply. 

Types of diabetes 
Diabetes occurs when blood glucose levels are too high. It may be either chronic or potentially reversible and is treated in several different ways. 

  • Type I diabetes 

Type I diabetes is characterized by the sudden onset of symptoms including excessive urination, unplanned weight loss, and blurred vision. It typically starts in childhood or early adulthood and is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. Treatment involves lifelong daily administration of insulin, either via injection or (within the past few years) through a wearable device. 

  • Type II diabetes 

Type II diabetes has similar symptoms to type I diabetes, although these are typically less pronounced. As a result, type II diabetes may not be diagnosed until after complications have arisen, although excess body weight and insufficient physical activity represent major risk factors. Type II diabetes is commonly treated with tablets to lower blood glucose, as well as through lifestyle changes, although it may also require short-term insulin administration. 

  • Prediabetes and gestational diabetes 

Prediabetes and gestational diabetes are potentially reversible forms of diabetes, in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but do not fall within the diabetic range. They are usually diagnosed by routine blood testing and may go away following lifestyle changes or childbirth. 

Diabetes biomarkers 
Various diabetes biomarkers have been identified, some more recently than others. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is one of the best characterized, being widely used for diagnosing prediabetes, although it is increasingly common for HbA1c to be combined with several other biomarkers for more accurate identification of prediabetic individuals whose condition is most likely to progress to type II diabetes. 

Biomarkers for type I diabetes include: 

  • C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) 
  • Double C2 protein beta (DOC2B) 
  • Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) 
  • Immunoglobulin A2 (IA-2) 
  • Islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) 
  • Insulin 
  • Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) 

Biomarkers for type II diabetes include: 

  • Cathepsin D 
  • Creatinine 
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) 
  • Ferritin 
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) 
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM-1) 
  • Soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) 

Supporting diabetes research 
Medix Biochemica Group is a global, market-leading supplier to the IVD industry. We develop, manufacture, and market a broad range of critical raw materials including antibodies, antigens, and biospecimens, many of which are used within IVD tests for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes.

To discuss how we can support your project, contact us today.

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